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            資金籌集的原則

            分享到:
            2019-03-28 19:16:33來源: 首冠教育

            在運作資金籌集的過程中,要堅持如下原則。

             

              1.滿足需要原則

             

              籌資要在正確預測和科學規劃的基礎上進行,要以滿足生產經營需要為最首要的原則。

             

              (1)籌資的數額要能保證生產經營的需要。

             

              (2)籌資的期限要與生產經營或建設周期相吻合。

             

              (3)籌資時間配比要及時,使資金的投放與運用同生產經營的具體需要緊密銜接。

             

              2.低成本原則

             

              籌資管理的重要內容就是在籌資的過程中進行籌資成本與效益的比較分析,選擇低成本、高效益的籌資渠道與籌資方式,最大限度地降低資金的使用成本和籌資過程中的費用。

             

              3.合法性原則

             

              在企業籌資的過程中,樹立法律意識,堅持按國家政策法規辦事,采取合法手段,通過合法渠道,取得合法資金,投入合法用途。

             

              4.穩定性原則

             

              籌資是企業的一項重大而經常性的財務管理工作,必須堅持穩定性原則。

             

              (1)所籌集的資金的穩定性,即盡可能取得期限較長的借款。

             

              (2)籌資方式的穩定性,即要選擇股票、債券等方式,并且不要頻繁變更籌資方式。

             

              (3)要同提供資金的金融機構建立長期穩定的業務合作關系

             

              資金籌集的基本來源

             

              企業的資金基本來源于投入資金和借入資金兩個渠道。

             

              (1)投入資金。指企業的所有者以各種投資形式注入企業的資金。投入資金長期存在于企業的生產經營過程,一般是不能抽走的。這部分形成企業的權益資本,如股票、保留盈余等。

             

              (2)借入資金。指企業以各種形式從企業外部借入,用于企業生產經營所用的資金。借入資金的所有權在債權人,企業只能或長或短地占用,是必須歸還的。這部分資金形成企業的負債資本,如銀行貸款、債券等。

             

              籌資渠道

             

              籌資渠道是指企業取得資金的來源途徑。我國企業籌資的主要渠道有:

             

              (1)國家財政資金;

             

              (2)銀行信貸資金;

             

              (3)非銀行機構的資金;

             

              (4)其他企業資金;

             

              (5)公共團體資金;

             

              (6)家庭或個人資金;

             

              (7)外商資金;

             

              (8)其他資金。

             

              籌資方式

             

              籌資方式是指企業取得資金的具體形式。我國企業的籌資方式主要有:

             

              (1)吸收直接投資:國家財政資金、非銀行機構的資金、外商資金;

             

              (2)發行股票;

             

              (3)利用留存收益:本企業公積金和未分配利潤;

             

              (4)向銀行借款:銀行信貸資金;

             

              (5)利用商業信用:預收款、應付款;

             

              (6)發行公司債券:其他企業資金、公共團體資金、家庭或個人資金;

             

              (7)融資租賃:分期付款而購入設備;

             

              (8)杠桿收購:利用自己的資產作為債務抵押,收購另一家公司的策略。

             

              其中前三種方式籌措的資金為權益資金,后幾種方式籌措的資金是負債資金。

             

             

              杠桿收購(Leveraged Buy-out,LBO)

             

              杠桿收購是指公司或個體利用自己的資產作為債務抵押,收購另一家公司的策略。交易過程中,收購方的現金開支降低到最小程度。換句話說,杠桿收購是一種獲取或控制其他公司的方法。杠桿收購的突出特點是,收購方為了進行收購,大規模融資借貸去支付(大部分的)交易費用。通常為總購價的70%或全部。同時,收購方以目標公司資產及未來收益作為借貸抵押。借貸利息將通過被收購公司的未來現金流來支付。

             

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